Paul Spiegel provides legal services for biotechnology startups and is researching social, legal and operational issues relating to substrate-independent minds. He graduated from the University of California, Berkeley in 1979 and from Berkeley Law in 1983, and has attended Harvard Law School, the Université de Paris, Sorbonne, International Christian University in Tokyo and the Instituto de Estudios Mexicanos in Cuernavaca. Trained in international business law, he worked in global business centers before entering private practice in business and biotechnology law in San Francisco. Long an advocate of progressive ideas and legal causes, he has focused on longevity, regenerative medicine and the biology of aging since encountering the work of Dr. Aubrey de Grey in 2005 through a long friendship with John Furber of Legendary Pharmaceuticals. An ardent transhumanist, Mr. Spiegel is a board member of the International Longevity Alliance, the American Longevity Alliance and the Life Extension Advocacy Foundation. He is a member of Humanity+, Health Extension and carboncopies.org, serves on the legal advisory committee of the Lifeboat Foundation and The Cure Is Now, mentors entrepreneurs for the California Life Sciences Association and the Thiel Foundation, and is legal counsel for many biotechnology and transhumanist enterprises. He is the founder and CEO of LIBERTAS Biomedical, a startup working to provide treatment and research facilities for the longevity industry in friendly venues worldwide.